1. E Numbers. Collins English Dictionary. any of a series of numbers with the prefix E indicating a specific food additive recognized by the European Union and used on labels of processed food
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2. E Number definitions for each artificial chemical in food and drink are monitored by The UK Food Standards Agency FSA. The FSA report the research being carried out which includes ongoing projects regarding evolving food allergies and intolerance. Any unknown artificial chemical additives can be checked by emailing email@example.com or phone 020 7276 8570.
3. Addiction. September 2014. Joseph Schroeder, Associate professor of psychology and director of the behavioral neuroscience program, Connecticut College, led Honohan and other students in the experiment. The conclusion were that rats find Oreos Cookies just as addictive as cocaine.
4. Marketing. September 2014. The World Health Organisation ( WHO ) Protecting children from the harmful effects of food and drink marketing.
5. Addiction. 2010 study conducted by scientists at Scripps Research Institute (SRI) in Florida found that rats given free access to artificial processed foods had brain
activity and function mirroring those occurring in the brains of drug addicts.
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6. Addiction. Sugar. Neurology research shows food causes serious addiction, the kind that addictive drugs do. Dr Nicole Avena and colleagues The department of Psychiatry, University of Florida, report the consumption of sugar not only alters brain function and behavior, it also elicits the same type of withdrawal symptoms like opiate drugs do. Sugar affects the opioid receptors in the brain, which are recognized by natural (endogenous or not) opioid substances. Foods rich in fat affect the brain in a different way, they cause withdrawal-type symptoms as well. Studies show there is a unique relationship between emotional balance and fatty acids.
7. Addiction. Psychological “High”. 2011. Researchers at both the University of Texas in Austin (UT) and the Oregon Research Institute found prolonged consumption of junk foods results in reduced activity in the striatum, a section of the forebrain that registers reward the same as with illicit drugs, those addicted to junk food require ever-increasing amounts to get the same “high.”
8. Addiction. Fat. Study published in The Journal of Clinical Investigation in 2011 tested the effects of fat consumption in healthy people while experiencing experimentally induced sad feelings. Within minutes the sad feelings were significantly alleviated and the subjects reported improved mood, while MRI scans confirmed the expected brain response. This study is important as it shows fat does not have to be properly digested to modify brain functions. The presence of fat in the gut triggers the release of gastrointestinal hormones, which regulate neurological
and emotional responses within minutes.
9. Addiction. Brain Dopamine Levels and Obesity. Study 2001 Gene-Jack Wang and Nora Volkow of the Brookhaven National Laboratory. This is reported in The Lancet.
10. World Health Organisation ( WHO ) Global Strategy on Diet, Physical Activity and Health” was adopted in 2004 by the World Health Assembly (WHA). It called on governments, WHO, international partners, the private sector and civil society to take action at global, regional and local levels to support healthy diets and physical activity.
11. Yale Food Addiction Scale (YFAS) is a 25-point questionnaire, based on DSM-IV codes for substance dependence criteria, to assess food addiction in individuals. The scale was released in 2009 by Yale University’s Rudd Centre for Food Policy and Obesity. The Uconn Rudd Centre explain about marketing to children and how the food industry is working.